A detailed description of the neural system of animals is presented. It
employs a new electrolytic paradigm that provides a more sophisticated framework
than the chemical concept employed under the old paradigm. The focus
is on the circuits and mechanisms causing a phenomenon, rather than on reporting the phenomenon. The
subject is presented at the histological and cytological level based on the
new, and COMPREHENSIVE
ELECTROLYTIC THEORY OF THE NEURON.
in a series of web pages to be augmented by a series of individual guides via
the left navigation panel.
Activa™: See Citation Page
The new paradigm describes the neuron as containing a three-terminal active
electrolytic device formed by the junction of real semiconducting bilayer membranes
(lemma), as the foundation of The Electrolytic Theory of the Neuron.
new Neuron Doctrine in axiomatic form is available. It replaces the largely
conceptual doctrine of the past.
This theory is a replacement for the previous paradigm based on a two-terminal
device (the axolemma membrane alone) formed of a putative permeable membrane
subject to the Nernst Equation and supporting the flow of alkali ions through
the membrane according to Hodgkin & Huxley, as the foundation of the chemical
theory of the neuron.
The old paradigm of the neural system based primarily on chemical mechanisms
is no longer tenable. While the dominant paradigm during the last
half of the 20th Century, neuroscience has been held back through reliance
on this concept. The primary signaling functions within the neural
system are based on its electrolytic character. (Electrolytic =
involving the transfer of electrical charge in a liquid environment.) The
flow of electrons through an active electrolytic semiconducting device is the
fundamental mechanism in the new paradigm, and is highlighted by the logo of
this website. It is only the secondary functions, providing electrical
power to the electrolytic circuits, that are fundamentally chemical in nature. It
is these secondary functions, based heavily on stereochemistry, cellular surface
physical chemistry and the permeability of the matrix surrounding the neurons
that provide control of the neural processes.
Core Portions of this web page, and supporting
The Unique Chemistry of taste (gustation) and
The neuroscience community has suffered from a two-faceted quandary for many
- Why have no reaction products ever been isolated from the taste and smell mechanisms?
- What is the chemistry employed in taste and smell?
Without knowledge of this chemistry, no suitable theory of taste and smell has
The taste and smell modalities do not employ what is conventionally known as
valence chemistry, combining both ionic and covalent chemistry. It employs
the lesser known coordinate chemistry. This chemistry involves
short term linkages, and does not generate residues. Based on this chemistry,
and the concept of combinatorial analysis as used in these sensory modalities,
it is possible to explain the operation of these modalities in detail as shown
in the following documents:
RELATED MATERIAL BASED ON THIS THEORY
This 21st Century electrolytic paradigm has proven extremely successful. Its
success, particularly in describing the visual, auditory & olfactory/gustatory
system of humans, overshadows any criticism generated within the context of
the old paradigm. Several recent medical breakthroughs could not
have been achieved in the absence of this new paradigm. The current
understanding of the operation of the central nervous system, in the visual,
auditory and smell contexts,
would not be available without this new paradigm.
The new paradigm has provided a totally new understanding of the operation of
the heart and particular the
A particularly intriguing success has been the elucidation of the complete echolocation
system of the bottlenosed dolphin (See callout on the right). This new understanding
has provided new insights into the teaching of blind children in their intrinsic
auditory echolocation capabilities.
The theory and descriptions of the neural system to be presented here, based
on the new 21st Century paradigm, is quite extensive. To manage the volume
of material to be considered, the site has been subdivided into four major
This Part. It focuses on the neuron as a component and its use
in neural circuits in general.
A site dedicated to the description of the visual sensory input
to, and the related data extraction by, the overall neural system.
A site dedicated to the description of the hearing sensory input
to, and the related data extraction by, the overall neural system.
CONCEPTS A site dedicated to the description of the sensory
systems of taste and smell and the method of processing this data within the
In developing the theory presented here, it was found that there was no satisfactory
treatise on the BASIS OF THE NEURAL
SYSTEM. The main work was stymied by this situation. The state of the neuroscience
literature was found so inadequate in 1995 that a diversion was necessary.
This diversion resulted in the publication of two new books:
- "Biological Vision: A 21st Century Tutorial" on the detailed operation
of the human visual system. It is accompanied by a more extensive text on
the internet, "Processes in Biological Vision."
- "Hearing: A 21st Century Paradigm," A single extensive volume on the
operation of the human hearing system. Even this volume is supplemented by
two additional chapters available on the internet.
Both of the highlighted texts are available for purchase on their respective
Vision: A 21st Century Tutorial"
21st Century Paradigm"
The texts can also be purchased through your local bookseller, on Amazon.com,
or from Trafford Publishing in Bloomfield, Indiana.
BACKGROUND ON THIS SITE
The portion of this site related to the more general aspects of the neuron is
still under development. However, extensive discussions of the neuron have
been provided in Chapter 4 of the visual sensory site and Chapter 3 of the
hearing sensory site.
The development of this site is being carried out in parallel with the development
of the new text, "The Neuron & Neural
System: A 21st Century Paradigm." However, the expansion in academic activity
and academic inquiries based on the two previous books has resulted in a significant
diversion of the authors focus from this third text.
Two fundamental findings and one major discovery related to the neuron have
resulted from the overall effort:
- The morphologically defined neuron is not the fundamental
element of the neural system from a functional
- The functional aspects of the neural system are entirely
electrolytic in operation.
- The chemical transport of simple ions, or heavy molecules, at the synapse
separating neurons does not play a role in the signaling function of the
Discovery of the ACTIVA
The discovery of the active electrolytic semiconductor device,
the Activa™, provided the key to the understanding of
the operation of the neuron and the rest of the neural
system. It placed the functional role of the various morphological and
cytological structures in proper perspective and provided the correct interpretation
of the operational phenomena involved.
The Activa is a unique biologically based structure that exhibits "transistor
action" The term "transistor action" is a term in the Patent lexicon to define
a unique quantum mechanical mechanism. The Activa, US Patent #5,946,185, is
the electrolytic (biological) equivalent of the man-made transistor.
Go to MAJOR CONCEPTUAL CHANGES introduced by the Electrolytic
Theory of the neuron. These conceptual changes have opened a new perspective
on the neural system that has created an entirely new paradigm related to the
understanding of the neural system. Go to MAJOR NEW DISCOVERIES
by the Electrolytic Theory of the neuron
Table of Contents of the Text
A preliminary Table of Contents to the work tentatively titled "The Neuron and
Neural System" can be accessed using the tab at the upper left, Table of Contents.
The theory presented here is far more complete and mathematically rigorous than
any other presented to date. It takes issue with many concepts that have become
dogma over the years through indiscriminate repetition in textbooks and journal
articles. Many of these poorly defined dogmatic positions are compared with
a more explicit position based on the theory.
MAJOR CONCEPTUAL CHANGES
The main work introduces three major paradigm shifts affecting concepts held
true for the last 50 years, a super extended period considering the rate of
changes in other scientific technologies. The second shift redefines the fundamental
nature of the neuron. It calls for a extending the Neuron Doctrine of Cajol
beyond the realm of morphology to include electrophysiology.
A restated Neuron Doctrine [10.8.1]
- The neuron is the fundamental biologically sustainable
unit of the nervous system. It is the minimum viable cellular structure.
- Each neuron contains one or more fundamental functional
(signaling) units internally and one or more external
fundamental units connecting it to an orthodromic
- Each fundamental functional unit consists of an active
electrolytic semiconductor device, an Activa, supported by its
peripheral electrolytic components.
One premise that is fully documented in Chapter 8 [8.7] is that all
known synapses are electrolytic in origin and contain an Activa.
If the reader accepts the above premises and the shifts in thinking described,
it is suggested that he will be amply rewarded. Many previously undefined phenomena
become quantifiable and a large group of new performance descriptors become
Although the PARADIGM
SHIFT related to the neuron is completely supported by the data in the literature,
it is so significant that most of the hypotheses found in journal material
must be considered obsolete until they are reinterpreted. Most neuron related
hypotheses in current textbooks must also be considered obsolete. The PARADIGM SHIFTS, AS A GROUP,
lead to a larger set of FUNDAMENTAL
PREMISES that form the foundation of this work.
MAJOR NEW DISCOVERIES
The list of new discoveries based on the Electrolytic Theory of the Neuron is
long. These discoveries refute many earlier ideas and relegate them to the
"ash can of history." These discoveries are highlighted below.
- The neural system is only one of the major functional systems of the body.
However, it-and its close affiliation with the glandular system-makes it a
- The neural system can be described as multilayered.
- The physical layer is lowest--morphological and histological level.
- The Functional layer is next--physiological level.
- Additional layers can be defined within the Central Nervous System.
- The operational layer--awareness, alarm, analytical, volition and command
- The operational layer can only perform non-transcendental mathematics.
- The operational layer employs pattern matching as a primary tool.
- The decision making layer--cognition within the prefrontal cortex (PFC).
- Each neuron consists of two major portions evolved from a stem cell during
- Every neuron contains multiple internal compartments filled with electrically
- Every neuron contains a portion dedicated to homeostasis and a compartment
dedicated to signaling.
- The compartment containing the nucleus is associated with homeostasis and
is ultimately powered by glucose.
- Multiple compartments within each neuron are dedicated to electrolytic signaling.
The signaling portion is powered by glutamic acid (glutamate)
- The neural system of biology employs electrolytic signaling instead of
chemical signaling except in its implementation of command signals where neuroaffectors
- The external and internal walls (lemma) of neurons are formed of electrically
specific bilayer structures.
- The external lemma of a neuron are divided into functionally discrete sections.
- Most of the external lemma is electrolytically insulating.
- Specific areas of the external lemma form electrically semiconducting
regions described as diodes.
- The internal lemma of a neuron are divided into functionally discrete sections.
- Most of the internal lemma are electrolytically insulating.
- Specific areas of the internal lemma form electrically semiconducting
regions described as diodes.
- When the special lemma sections forming diodes are brought into juxtaposition,
they form an active electrolytic semiconduction device known as an Activa.
- The neural system of biology can be subdivided into seven major functional
- Signal generation, signal processing, signal projection, signal manipulation,
cognition, command generation & command affectation.
- The neural and glandular systems of biology merge at the point of neural
- The affectation neurons release a broad range of organic and inorganic materials,
many of which are frequently classified as hormones.
- Affectation neurons are the interface with the paracrine, endocrine and exocrine
portions of the glandular system.
- Phylogenically, the neural system has evolved into two distinct Sub-kingdoms;
the Chordata that employ phasic signal projection of neural signals, and the
other phyla that employ time-delay neurons to coordinate the multiple muscles
involved in swimming and multi-leg locomotion.
- The giant axon of squid is a time-delay neuron that does not generate actual
- Virtually any neuron can be caused to generate action potentials under parametric
electrical stimulation in
- The neural system of Chordata consists of a central nervous system CNS),generally
within a bony cranium, and a peripheral neural system (PNS).
- All members of Chordata have a functioning cerebral cortex (telencephalon)
although in lower species it may consist of merely the cap on the terminal
end of the spinal chord known as the diencephalon (old brain).
- The PNS performs signal generation, signal processing and signal affectation.
Signal projection within the peripheral system is by neurons supporting
serial transmission of information.
- The CNS performs signal manipulation (analysis), cognition and command generation.
Signal projection within the CNS is by parallel transmission of information
over parallel neurons supporting serial transmission.
- Information projected within the CNS cannot be effectively captured using
individual electrical probes.
- Every neuron of the neural system contains at least one active electrolytic
device known as an Activa.
- The Activa is a PNP type three-terminal electrolytic liquid-crystalline semiconducting
- The Activa is completely analogous to the three-terminal solid-crystalline
semiconducting device known as a transistor.
- The Activa is powered by a chemical process known as electrostenolysis that
converts Glutamate into GABA with the release of CO2.
- The signaling portion of the neuron does not rely upon oxygen for its operation.
- A closed form mathematical description of the sensory transduction process
used in vision, hearing, olfaction and most likely all other neurosensory
- The equation is known as the excitation/de-excitation equation (E/D) or the
photoexcitation/de-excitation equation (P/D) in the case of vision.
- This equation provides a complete solution to the transduction process for
any stimulus intensity. It includes the empirical solution suggested by
Hodgkin many years ago as a special case.
- A closed form mathematical description of the action potential generator circuit
that does not require the solution of multiple differential equations.
- The underlying circuit employs a switching type relaxation oscillator that
involves a different mathematical treatment of the attack part, and the
decay part, of the action potential waveform
- The closed form solution and switching characteristic shows the analysis
by Hodgkin & Huxley, and built on by many subsequent mathematicians,
is no longer viable.
- The signal processing within all neural systems employs primarily analog
- Neural system signal processing involves the same techniques as man-made
- The neural system does not employ any binary circuits that can be likened
to a digital computer.
- Signal projection over long distances within the neural system of Chordata
employs phasic signaling, involving the use of action potentials.
- Action potentials are generated and encoded by ganglion neurons &
decoded by stellite neurons
- Action potentials are generated by ganglion neurons using a switching type
monopulse relaxation oscillator.
- The action potentials may be generated as individual pulses or as streams
of continuous pulses
- The action potential pulses are monostable, they do not exhibit two (binary)
- The action potentials employ a place-code of the pulse-to-pulse time-delay
- A place code contains more information than the rate code previously proposed
- The action potential pulse streams are totally deterministic and based
on the analog signal they encode.
- The analog information encoded by the action potential pulses are decoded
by stellite neurons (which include the morphologically defined stellate
neurons and others).
- The analog signal reproduced by the stellite neuron is a deterministic
reproduction of the signal encoded by the ganglion neuron
- The quality of the deterministically reconstructed analog signal meets
the requirements of the neural system.
- Specially configures stellite neurons are used to compare the temporal arrival
times of two action potential pulse streams originating in the neurosensory
transducers for purpose of source location within the external environment.
- The same stellite decoding circuits are used to determine the location
of auditory sources and the position of visual objects in multidimensional
- The dimensions of these signals are the X, Y, & Z coordinates of space
relative to the observer, and the intensity and frequency (wavelength)
of the source.
- The human visual system, like that of all other members of Chordata,
employs four individual spectral absorbers, including one in the ultraviolet
that is only partially used in the larger mammals.
- The spectral absorbers of chordate vision have peak wavelengths of 342, 437,
532 & 625 nm.
- The ultraviolet vision of humans is truncated at 400 nm by the absorption
characteristic of the lens of the eye.
- The ultraviolet vision of humans is important when observing colors in the
400-437 nm region, such as paintings by the "Dutch Masters" in an art gallery
- The Scotopic Visibility Function is a sub-set of the Photopic Visibility
Function after shutdown of the long wavelength (red) spectral channel at
low light levels.
- The visual system of humans and other members of
Chordata employ signal summation in the brightness channels and signal
differencing in the chrominance channels.
- The chrominance channels employ signal differencing as conceptualized by
Hering and described graphically by Munsell.
- Only the brightness channels employ signal summation as promulgated by the
CIE based on the hypotheses of Young and of Helmholtz.
- The Chromaticity Diagram based on the Electrolytic Theory of the Neuron provides
a deterministic orthogonal foundation for the Munsell Color Space
- The Chromaticity Diagram based on the Electrolytic Theory provides an orthogonal
foundation for the CIE Uniform Color Space currently evolving under CIE
- The auditory frequency selection process within the cochlea employs the
Marcatili Effect, discovered during the late 1960's.
- The Marcatili Effect describes the separation of auditory frequencies as
a function of the curvature of Hensen's Stripe within the cochlea.
- Frequency selection does not depend upon the mechanical stiffness or physical
width of the tectorial membrane within the cochlea.
- The olfactory/gustatory modalities sense the dipole potential of individual
stimulant molecules when captured in a stereo-chemical relationship with the
- There are less than 25 receptor types in the olfactory modality and only
four receptor types associated with taste.
- Both modalities employ matrixing to sense and report to the brain a wide
range of chemicals.
- The enteric and cardiac systems of the viscera have frequently been described
as containing a mini-brain. In fact, they contain a complete mini-neural system including
sensing, memory, decision making and action causing neural elements.
- The major group of cells in the heart have historically been named myocytes
but are more properly labeled cardiocytes. Each cardiocyte incorporates a
neural, a contractile and a housekeeping capability.
The above list of MAJOR NEW DISCOVERIES will be annotated as to the principle
webpages discussing each of these ideas in the future. An attempt will also
be made to place these statements in a comprehensive framework. In the meantime,
an extensive set of descriptors describing the visual system has been prepared.
able to describe the vision process and the neural system to a totally new
degree of accuracy and precision.
ARCHITECTURES of the NEURON and of NEURAL SYSTEMS
To understand the operation of the neural system, it is important that a framework
be developed describing that system functionally. This work begins with a description
of the Neural
Architectures of biology. The block diagrams of the system define a series of
functional stages within the system and support a variety of operating modes
The MINI-NEURAL SYSTEMS of MAMMALS
In exploring the sensory modalities, and the neuro-affectors of the neural system,
it became clear that two distinct mini-neural systems existed within the overall
neural system of the mammals. These subsystems were found in the cardiac system
and the enteric system, as described anatomically. Both of these systems were
found to be more than just mini-brains (as they have frequently been described);
they are complete mini-neural systems including sensory, neuro-affector modalities
as well as the computational capability usually associated with the central
enrvous system (albeit on a smaller scale).
Sections of this website are under development to describe these mini-neural
systems. Unfortunately, the discoveries emanating from the Electrolytic Theory
of the Neuron have been so broad and detailed that documentation is slow. Anyone
specifically interested in these systems is invited to contact the author for
beta-versions of the relevant materials.
Mini-Neural System A site describing the complete neural subsystem of the
cardiac system, including the unique cytology of the myocytes (more adequately
described as cardiocytes).
- Enteric Mini-Neural System A site describing the complete neural subsystem
of the digestive tract.
SIGNATURE WAVEFORMS OF THE NEURAL SYSTEM
NEW TEST PROTOCOLS required by the new paradigm
PATHWAYS TO SPECIFIC SUBJECT MATTER
This work has become so extensive, a theme-based Table of Contents is useful.
The following links will take the reader to the major subject matter.
The Section numbers are current (Aug. 2016) but the page numbers within the
URL's are subject to editing.
At the end of each cited document is a detailed Table of Contents, List of
Figures and an Index providing greater specificity
- Introduction to the Neural System, Sections 1.1 through 1.4 of Chapter 1.
- Framework & Major Findings of the Neural System, Section 1.1.5.
- Phylogenic Tree of animals from the perspective of the neural system,
Temporary PBV*, Section 126.96.36.199
- Generic Block Diagram of the Neural System of all animals, Section 1.1.5
- Definition of "engines" within individual stages of the Block Diagram,
- Fundamental Neuron used in all animal systems, Chapter 2
- Electrostenolytic means used to power all individual neurons, Chapter 3
- Stage 1 Sensory neurons common to all animal Neural Systems, Sections 8.1.2 to 8.1.4
- The Excitation/de-excitation (E/D)Equation of transduction used in all
sensory neurons, Section 8.9
- Modification among the sensory neurons based on their functional modality;
Vision, Section 8.2
Hearing, Section 8.3
Taste (Gustation), Section 8.5.1
Smell (Olfaction), Section 188.8.131.52
Species Specific Smell (Oskonation), Section 8.6.11
Touch (Somatosensing), Section 8.7
- Adaptation mechanism common to all sensory neurons, Temporary PBV*, Section 17.6
- Stage 2 Signal Processing common to the neural system, Temporary PBV*, Section 13.2.1
- Stage 3 Signal Projection using monopulse technology (action potentials,
- The myelinated axon as a Maxwellian cable, replacing the Kelvin/Rall
concept, Section 9.1.2
- Stage 3A, analog signal encoding as a monopulse stream, Section 9.2
- Actual neural pulse code used in Stage 3 Signal Propagation, Section 9.3
- Stage 3B, recovery of analog signals from a monopulse stream, Section 9.6
- Stage 4, Information extraction within the Central Nervous System, Temporary PBV*, Sections 15.2.4 & 15.2.5
- The thalamic Reticular Nucleus (TRN) as the non-conscious Executive,
- The saliency Map of Stage 4 as the internal representation of the external
environment, Temporary PBV*,Section 15.2.2
- Stage 5, Cognition within the neural system, Chapter 12
- Memory as a ubiquitous support function within the CNS, Chapter 17
- Types of Memory within the CNS, Section 17.1.1
- Consciousness, Chapter 18
- Stage 7, Muscle & Glandular Interfaces with the Neural System, Chapter 16
- Stage 8, The neurons of the Viscera, including the Enteric & Cardiac anatomical
subsystems, Chapter 18
* PBV; "Processes in Biological Vision" James T. Fulton (2004)
PROBLEMS WITH THE LONG HELD CONCEPTS AND THE LITERATURE
xxx edit below here
The discovery of a new fundamental element within every neuron, and also forming
every synapse and every Node of Ranvier obviously causes conflicts with the
previous literature of the academic community. While a great deal of the empirical
literature supports the new Paradigm, it obviously brings into question the
teachings of many text books and Pedagogical undertakings. The following paragraphs
will synopsize the faults found with the previous material based on the discovery
of the ACTIVA and its accompanying ramifications.
Marmarelis vs Popper as the framework for the
Marmarelis has recently offered a broader Synergistic Approach to the Scientific
Method than that espoused by Karl Popper (1902-1994). Where as Popper focused
almost entirely on the use of Deduction as a methodology for developing a conceptual
hypothesis for guiding the experimentallist, the approach of Marmarelis focused
on the Inductive process to arrive at a more sophisticated null hypothesis
before transitioning to the experimental phase of hypothesis verification.
The two advantages introduced by the Marmarelis approach are the requirement
that the investigator;
- Listen to what the available data is telling him, and
- Insure that his mathematical framework is adequate for addressing the data.
In essence, do not offer a hypothesis based on linear algebra or linear differential
equations if the data is clearly nonlinear. Accept the fact that nonlinear
differential equations are required to describe the data adequately. Similarly,
do not assume the process is stationary with respect to time, if the data is
Finally, do not assume a process is based on a specific physical framework,
such as chemistry, when the data is telling you and the laboratory measurements
are employing techniques outside the realm of chemstry.
A further discussion of the Marmarelis approach is available.
By expanding Popper's Deductive portion with Marmarelis's Inductive portion,
the Synergistic Approach of Marmarelis leads to much better Null Hypotheses
and more rapid scientific advances.
This work continues to employ a definition of falsifiable (or refutable) derived
from Popper. It does not derive from the common English concept of forgery
but from the philosophical perspective of academic logic. The less than ideal
term "to falsify" was used in the original translation of his work from the
Falsifiability or refutability is the logical possibility that an assertion
can be contradicted by an observation or the outcome of a physical experiment.
That something is "falsifiable" does not mean it is false; rather, that if
it is false, then some observation or experiment will produce a reproducible
result that is in conflict with it. This discussion centers on the availability
of experimental evidence showing the Chemical Theory of the Neuron is refultable.
In modern usage, Popper's assertions can be stated as follows.
- A Theory, to be scientifically valid, must be empirically testable
(falsifiable) in the laboratory. Otherwise, it falls outside the realm of
science. Such an untested theory is called a "null hypothesis." If the empirical
investigation shows it is valid, it is accepted as useful and the hypothesis
is recognized as a valid theory (at least for the time period).
- If the empirical investigations of the period (or a later period) develop data
in conflict with the null hypothesis, the hypothesis is refuted and must be
discarded or restated (based on the new data).
In many pedagogical situations, a null hypothesis in conflict with the complete
data set is allowed to stand as a "first order theory" while a new null hypothesis
is proposed as a more advanced or second order theory. This situation is not
always highlighted or even honored within the academic community.
Falsification (or Refutability) of the Chemical
Theory of the Neuron
The chemical theory of the neuron is founded on the application of the Nernst
Diffusion Equation to a putative biological membrane exhibiting a bidirectional
porosity continuum, and subsequent tweaks to it by Donner and by Goodman to
make it satisfy individual empirical data samples.
A series of key experiments provide more than adequate falsification of the
chemical theory (null hypothesis) of the neuron. The porosity of the biological
membrane is clearly discontinuous, thereby falsifying the basic assumption.
These experiments and the relevant background associated with them are presented
on a separate web page, the Falsification of the Chemical Neuron
Falsification (or Refutability) of Computational
models of the neuron of Hodgkin & Huxley
xxx empty at the moment.
The common electro-physiological models of the neuron have depended on the theory
(null hypothesis) that the action potential of the chordate neural system is
describable by a potential function that is a stationary and continuous function
of time throughout its duration. Figure 6 of the first Hodgkin & Huxley
paper (1952a) clearly showed the response of their experimental specimen, the
giant axon of the squid, was not stationary with respect to time and exhibited
separate attack and relaxation time constants. This situation alone falsifies
the use of stationary and continuous linear differential equations to explain
the observed output waveforms. With the discovery of the biological transistor, the Activa,
and the incorporation of the Activa into a relaxation type (switching type)
oscillator circuit, the Hodgkin & Huxley hypothesis becomes totally untenable.
This places virtually all of the previous computational models of the neuron
of Hodgkin and Huxley in jeopardy. They assume continuity between the rise
and fall portions of the output waveform.
The problems associated with computational modeling of the Hodgkin and Huxley
framework for the neuron generating action potentials are addressed in a separate
document, the Falsification of the computational models of the Hodgkin and Huxley neuron.
Because of the revolutionary nature of some of the material presented, students
subject to examination by their institution are encouraged to review the
Cautions Pagebefore proceeding.
MAJOR CONCEPTUAL CHANGES
The theory is far more complete and mathematically rigorous than any other presented
to date. It introduces three major paradigm shifts affecting concepts held
true for the last 50 years, a super extended period considering the rate of
changes in other scientific technologies.
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