New Chromaticity Diagram

before it appears in textbooks

Biological Vision:
        Review Table of Contents
A 21st Century Tutorial         Review Target Audience
                Comments from Target Audience

A printed copy of the book is available from Trafford Publishing (A division of Author House) by clicking here and entering the ISBN 141201917-6 in the upper right box on the title page

The book is also available through Amazon. For the Americas, it can be ordered from using the same ISBN number.
For Europe, it can be ordered from using the same ISBN number.

Ordering from the nearest source will minimize shipping costs.
Prompt shipping is assured in any case.

The price, while moderate, will vary with the source and your arrangement with that source.
Soft cover, 190 pages (6" x 9"), 50 figures (five in color).

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VISION CONCEPTS is proud to make available a new monograph by James T. Fulton summarizing the latest information on the visual system applicable to all biological species. Drawn from and can be used as a guide to the large (2400 pages) comprehensive work, PROCESSES IN BIOLOGICAL VISION .

The text is aimed at upper and graduate level university students pursuing a career in the biological sciences or medicine. It can be understood by lower level students and Honors students in High School. However, the terminology may require these students to make frequent reference to the glossary provided. The text makes frequent reference to the Standard Human Eye that is also provided. Both of these references are available separately at no cost.

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I have just stumbled across your very interesting and useful online book 'PROCESSES IN BIOLOGICAL VISION' and would like to thank you for making it available. Member, National Academy of Science etc.

I meant to tell you how much I am enjoying your vision tutorial book- I bought it on Amazon. Professional researcher in sensory aids for the blind.

I want to congratulate you for this great and exhaustive work on biological vision. This work will be very helpfull for our own research on image analysis and shape descripton- - - Pres. Canadian Robotics Company

"Giant Work!" I just received your text a couple of weeks ago, and must admit it's one off the greatest science works I've ever seen. - - French researcher

"Excellent site." British Optometrist

"Your website is an unmatched compilation of technical data and clear insight on biological vision."

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The monograph begins with a review of vision in the context of evolution and a vision based phylogenic tree. The architecture of vision found in each phylum is then addressed as the work begins to focus on human vision. All of the major electrolytic circuits of vision, between the photoreceptors of the retina and the stellate cells of the brain are addressed in detail. The various phenomena of vision are addressed by explaining the underlying mechanisms. The performance of human vision is reviewed from a variety of perspectives. These perspectives include brief guides to how we analyze a scene and how we read.

1. The last 500 Million Years of Evolution

2. The Variation among Eyes is Enormous
      2.1 Each Phylum has a distinctive eye architecture
      2.2 The Chordate eye and the significance of the reverse retina

3. The Eyes are part of a Larger Visual System
      3.1 The Building Block Architecture of the Chordate Visual System
      3.2 The major role played by the Diencephalon
      3.3 Plan and profile views of the human visual system
      3.4 Functional signal pathways within the visual system
      3.5 The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) as the gate keeper of vision
      3.6 Summary of overall visual operation

4. Neurons are the electrolytic equivalent of man-made electrical circuits
      4.1 The electrolytic versus ionic argument of neuron operation
      4.2 Semiconductor physics applied to the neuron
      4.3 The operation of the electrolytic neuron
      4.4 Metabolic support to the neuron

5. The unique neuro-secretory photoreceptor cell
      5.1 Functional divisions of the photoreceptor cell
      5.2 Electrical configuration of the photoreceptor cell
      5.3 Secretory functions of the photoreceptor cell
      5.4 Growth within the individual photoreceptor space

6. The Tetrachromatic Capability of the Typical Photoreceptor Group
      6.1 The eyes are quantum detectors, not energy detectors
      6.2 Liquid crystal quantum physics is key to spectral absorption
      6.3 The four chromophores of biological vision
      6.4 Non-spectral variants between chromophores due to their Vitamin A base
      6.5 Isotropic and anisotropic absorption of the liquid crystalline chromophores
      6.6 The spectral characteristics of the in-vivo chromophores of biological vision

7. The Unique Photoreceptor/IPM/ RPE environment
      7.1 Morphogenesis of the human eye
      7.2 The complete mature PC/IPM/RPE complex
      7.3 Where did the cones go–the dynamics of the PC/IPM/RPE interface

8. More detailed architecture of higher chordate visual system
      8.1 The role of delay in the signal processing of vision
      8.2 The role of computational anatomy in vision
      8.3 The role of tremor in the signal processing of vision
      8.4 The correlation process of the PGN/pulvinar couple

9. The Performance of the Nominal Human Visual System
      9.1 Functional Performance related to Physiology
         9.1.1 Transient performance of the photodetection process–the P/D Equation
         9.1.2 Spectral performance of the human eye
         9.1.3 Chromatic performance of the complete human eye
         9.1.4 Adaptation is a crucial mechanism in biological vision
         9.1.5 The phenomenon of Color Constancy
         9.1.6 The contrast performance of the visual system
      9.2 Functional Performance related to Perception
         9.2.1 The horopter
         9.2.2 Depth perception and stereopsis
         9.2.3 How humans Analyze a scene
         9.2.4 Overview of how humans read

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Additional material on the themes found within this monograph and the larger supporting work are available on the main website.

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