New Chromaticity Diagram

before it appears in textbooks

Biological Vision: A 21st Century Tutorial.

$25.00 USD (including shipping world wide).
Soft Cover: 120 pages (8.5 x 11), 50 figures(five in color). Immediate shipping
Hard Cover: 250 pages (6 x 9), 50 figures (five in color).

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VISION CONCEPTS is proud to make available a new monograph by James T. Fulton summarizing the latest information on the visual system applicable to all biological species. Drawn from and can be used as a guide to the large comprehensive work, PROCESSES IN BIOLOGICAL VISION .

The monograph is aimed at upper and graduate level university students pursuing a career in the biological sciences or medicine. It can be understood by lower level students and Honors students in High School. However, the terminology may require these students to make frequent reference to the readily available glossary. The monograph makes frequent reference to the Standard Human Eye that is also readily available. Both of these references are available at no cost.


The monograph begins with a review of vision in the context of evolution and a vision based phylogenic tree. The architecture of vision found in each phylum is then addressed as the work begins to focus on human vision. All of the major electrolytic circuits of vision, between the photoreceptors of the retina and the stellate cells of the brain are addressed in detail. The various phenomena of vision are addressed by explaining the underlying mechanisms. The performance of human vision is reviewed from a variety of perspectives. These perspectives include brief guides to how we analyze a scene and how we read.

1. The last 500 Million Years of Evolution

2. The Variation among Eyes is Enormous
      2.1 Each Phylum has a distinctive eye architecture
      2.2 The Chordate eye and the significance of the reverse retina

3. The Eyes are part of a Larger Visual System
      3.1 The Building Block Architecture of the Chordate Visual System
      3.2 The major role played by the Diencephalon
      3.3 Plan and profile views of the human visual system
      3.4 Functional signal pathways within the visual system
      3.5 The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) as the gate keeper of vision
      3.6 Summary of overall visual operation

4. Neurons are the electrolytic equivalent of man-made electrical circuits
      4.1 The electrolytic versus ionic argument of neuron operation
      4.2 Semiconductor physics applied to the neuron
      4.3 The operation of the electrolytic neuron
      4.4 Metabolic support to the neuron

5. The unique neuro-secretory photoreceptor cell
      5.1 Functional divisions of the photoreceptor cell
      5.2 Electrical configuration of the photoreceptor cell
      5.3 Secretory functions of the photoreceptor cell
      5.4 Growth within the individual photoreceptor space

6. The Tetrachromatic Capability of the Typical Photoreceptor Group
      6.1 The eyes are quantum detectors, not energy detectors
      6.2 Liquid crystal quantum physics is key to spectral absorption
      6.3 The four chromophores of biological vision
      6.4 Non-spectral variants between chromophores due to their Vitamin A base
      6.5 Isotropic and anisotropic absorption of the liquid crystalline chromophores
      6.6 The spectral characteristics of the in-vivo chromophores of biological vision

7. The Unique Photoreceptor/IPM/ RPE environment
      7.1 Morphogenesis of the human eye
      7.2 The complete mature PC/IPM/RPE complex
      7.3 Where did the cones go–the dynamics of the PC/IPM/RPE interface

8. More detailed architecture of higher chordate visual system
      8.1 The role of delay in the signal processing of vision
      8.2 The role of computational anatomy in vision
      8.3 The role of tremor in the signal processing of vision
      8.4 The correlation process of the PGN/pulvinar couple

9. The Performance of the Nominal Human Visual System
      9.1 Functional Performance related to Physiology
         9.1.1 Transient performance of the photodetection process–the P/D Equation
         9.1.2 Spectral performance of the human eye
         9.1.3 Chromatic performance of the complete human eye
         9.1.4 Adaptation is a crucial mechanism in biological vision
         9.1.5 The phenomenon of Color Constancy
         9.1.6 The contrast performance of the visual system
      9.2 Functional Performance related to Perception
         9.2.1 The horopter
         9.2.2 Depth perception and stereopsis
         9.2.3 How humans Analyze a scene
         9.2.4 Overview of how humans read


Additional material on the themes found within this monograph and the larger supporting work are available on the main website.

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