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Last updated 20 Sept 2008

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    Where a figure contains a direct reference (such as, From "author's name")in the caption, permission to republish that figure has been obtained from the publisher listed in the appropriate footnote. Contact the original publisher for permission to republish such material.

    Except as otherwise indicated above and elsewhere in this publication, with respect to a particular portion, file, or document, any person is hereby authorized to view, copy, print, and distribute this document subject to the following conditions:

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    2. Any copy of the document or portion thereof must include this copyright notice.

    3. VISION CONCEPTS reserves the right to revoke such authorization at any time, and any such use shall be discontinued immediately upon written notice from VISION CONCEPTS.


    Fulton, James T., Processes in Biological Vision {online} {Corona Del Mar, CA. USA} Vision Concepts, {published 2000-08-01}, {revised 2000-08-01},{cited 2000-08-01}. Available on the Internet: URL:

    A Guide to the above has been published as "Biological Vision: A 21st Century Tutorial"
    TRAFFORD, 2004
    ISBN: 141201917-6
    Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: QP475.5 F84 2004

    The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (R1997)(Permanence of Paper)

    Numbers in square brackets appearing on this site are references to the paragraphs in the on-line book, "Processes in Biological Vision." Many of the Chapters of this book are available for downloading from this site.


    The colophone (rainbow pattern in the upper left of most pages) is a service mark of VISION CONCEPTS, James T. Fulton, President.

    Activa is a trademark of VISION CONCEPTS, James T. Fulton, President, for an active electrolytic semiconductor device. Patent rights have been obtained; United States Patent #5,946,185

    Rhodonine is a trademark of VISION CONCEPTS, James T. Fulton, President, for a family of retinoids described herein.

    Safelight and Wratten are trademarks of the Eastman Kodak Co. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

    Registration with ACS

    The family of retinoids defined in this work as the Rhodonines have been registered with the American Chemical Society as follows:

    Show Rhodonine with three different suffix notations, letters, Karrer numbers, and *conjugate no.


    Permission to republish portions of the book, PROCESSES IN ANIMAL VISION, and selections from it available on this site may be obtained electronically using a FORM.

    If desired, permission may be obtained by mail to:

    ATTN: James T. Fulton
    1106 Sandpiper Dr.
    Corona Del Mar, CA. 92625-1407

    If writing, please include the same material as requested on the FORM.


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    This is an academic work. It has no clinical application and contains no clinical protocols. The author rejects any liability with respect to any clinical protocol developed by readers of this material.